The monthly cycle of the moon (we won't capitalize the word here) must have mystified early humans--"waxing" from thin crescent ("new moon") to half-moon, then to a "gibbous" moon and a full one, and afterwards "waning" to a crescent again. That cycle, lasting about 29.5 days, gave us the word "month"--related to "moon," as is "Monday."
The civil year, January to December, no longer ties its months to the moon, but some traditions still do and their terms for "month" reflect the connection--in Arabic, "shahr", in biblical Hebrew "yerach" and also "chodesh" from "new," since it was reckoned from one new moon to the next. Jericho (pronounced Yericho), one of the oldest cities on Earth, took its name from "yerach," and of course, legends tell of many moon-gods and goddesses, e.g. Artemis and Diana.
Early astronomers understood the different shapes of the moon, noting that each was linked to a certain relative position between moon and Sun: for instance, full moon always occurred when moon and Sun were at opposite ends of the sky. All this suggested that the moon was a sphere, illuminated by the Sun.