Some of the fragments are however neutrons, particles similar to protons but without the electric charge; neutrons make up about half the weight of a typical atomic nucleus. Having no electric charge, neutrons are not affected by the Earth's magnetic field, and moving far too fast for gravity to hold them back, they usually escape into space.|
The free neutron is however radioactive: within about 10 minutes it breaks up into a proton, which captures most of the energy, an electron and am essentially massless neutrino. Ten minutes is a fairly long time for a fast particle, time enough for many neutrons to get halfway to Mars. However, decay times are spread out statistically, and while 10 minutes is the average, a few neutrons decay quite soon, while still inside the Earth's magnetic field. The energetic protons which then materialize are grabbed by the Earth's magnetic field, often on trapped orbits which do not return to the atmosphere, in which the proton can stay trapped for a rather long time. That, it is believed, is how the inner belt arises.
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*** The Van Allen Belt
What if the Radiation Belt Reached the Ground... ?
Radiation Belt and Brazil