"Brief History" References: A-G

Table of Contents

Clicking on any marked section on the list below brings up a file containing it and all unmarked sections immediately following it on the list. This list is repeated at the beginning of each file.

  1. Introduction
  2. Discovery of the Radiation Belts
  3. Artificial Belts and Early Studies
  4. The Large Scale Structure
  5. Convection
  6. Reconnection
  7. The Open Magnetosphere
  8. Observational Tests
  9. The Polar Aurora
  10. Field Aligned Voltage Drops
  11. Birkeland Currents
  12. Substorms: Early Observations
  13. Substorms: The Satellite Era
  14. Substorms: Theory
  15. Convection in the Geotail
  16. Planetary Magnetospheres
  17. Other Areas
  18. Assessment
References: A-G
References: H-P
References: Q-Z
Back to "Exploration"


Note: Journals are cited by their most recent name; for instance, "Reviews of Geophysics" was "Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics" in 1970-1984. The mark (c) indicates the first in a collection of articles.

Acuna, Mario H. and N.F. Ness
Summary of the initial results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11, in Jupiter, pp. 830-847, edited by T. Gehrels, U. of Arizona Press, 1976.

Acuna, Mario H., G.W. Ousley, T.W. McEntire, D.A. Bryant and G. Paschmann (c)
AMPTE mission, overview, IEEE Trans. Geoscience Electr., GE-23, 175-176, 1985

Aggson, Thomas L. and J.P. Heppner
"Probe measurements of electric fields in space", in Atmospheric Emissions, pp. 305-316, B.M.McCormac editor, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1968.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi
The development of the auroral substorm, Planet. Space Sci.,12, 273-282, 1964.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi
The development of geomagnetic and auroral storms, J. Geomag. Geoelect., 18, 109-123, 1966.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi
In memoriam Sydney Chapman, Space Science Reviews, 11, 599-606, 1970.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi
Physics of Magnetospheric Substorms, xviii + 599 pp., D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1977.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi
The solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling and magnetosphere disturbances, Planet. Space Sci., 28, 495-509, 1980.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi and Sydney Chapman
The ring current, geomagnetic disturbance and the Van Allen radiation belts, J. Geophys. Res., 66, 1321-50, 1961.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi and Sidney Chapman
The development of the main phase of magnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 68, 125-129, 1963.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi, D.S. Kimball and Ching-I. Meng
The dynamics of the Aurora, I, Instabilities of the aurora, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 26, 205-211, 1964.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi, Sidney Chapman and Ching.-I. Meng
The polar electrojet, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 27, 1275-1305, 1965a.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi, D.S. Kimball and Ching-I. Meng
The dynamics of the Aurora, II, Westward traveling surges, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 27, 173-187 1965b.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi, D.S. Kimball and Ching-I. Meng
The dynamics of the Aurora, III, Westward drifting loops, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 27, 189-196, 1965c.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi, D.S. Kimball and Ching-I. Meng
Dynamics of the Aurora, IV, Polar magnetic substorms and westward traveling surges, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 28, 489-496, 1966a.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi, D.S. Kimball and Ching-I. Meng
Dynamics of the Aurora, V, Poleward Motions, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 28, 497-503, 1966b.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi, D.S. Kimball and Ching-I. Meng
Dynamics of the Aurora, VI, Formation of patches and their eastward motion, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 28, 505-511, 1966c.

Akasofu, Syun-Ichi, D.S. Kimball and Ching-I. Meng
Dynamics of the Aurora, VII, Equatorward motions and the multiplicity of auroral arcs, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 28, 627-635, 1966d.

Alfven, Hannes
A theory of magnetic storms and of the aurorae, K. Sven. Vetenskapakad., Handl., Ser. 3, 18(3), 1939. (Reprinted in part with comments by Alex Dessler and John Wilcox in Eos, 51, 180-194, 1970).

Alfven, Hannes
Cosmical Electrodynamics, Oxford University Press, 1950.

Alfven, Hannes and Carl-Gunne Falthammar
Cosmical Electrodynamics, Fundamental Principles, Oxford University Press, 1963.

Alpert, Yakov
40 years of Whistlers, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 42, 1-20, 1980.

Angelopoulos, Vassilis, W. Baumjohann, C.F. Kennel. F.V. Coroniti, M.G. Kivelson, R. Pellat, R.J. Walker, H. LŸhr and G. Paschmann
Bursty bulk flows in the inner central plasma sheet, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 4027-4039, 1992.

Atkinson, Gerald
Energy flow and closure of current systems in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 1089-1103, 1978.

Aubry, Michel P.
A short review of magnetospheric substorms,p. 357-364 in Earth Magnetospheric Processes, Billy McCormac, ed., D. Reidel, 1972.

Aubry, Michel P., C.T. Russell and M.G. Kivelson
Inward motion of the magnetopause before a substorm, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 7018-7031, 1970.

Aubry, Michel P. and Robert L. McPherron
Magnetotail changes in relation to the solar wind magnetic field and magnetospheric substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 4381-4401, 1971.

Axford, W. Ian
The interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 67, 3791-3796, 1962.

Axford, W. Ian
Viscous interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere, Planet. Space Sci., 12, 45-53, 1964.

Axford, W. Ian
The good old days, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 19,199-212, 1994.

Axford, W.Ian and Colin O Hines
A unifying theory of high-latitude geophysical phenomena and geomagnetic storms, Canad. J. Phys., 39, 1433-1464, 1961. Reprinted with comments in The Upper Atmosphere in Motion, C.O. Hines and Colleagues, p. 933-967, AGU, Washington, DC 1974.

Axford, W. Ian, Harry E. Petschek and George L. Siscoe
Tail of the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 70, 1231-1236, 1965.

Bagenal, Fran
Giant Planet Magnetospheres, Ann. Rev. Earth. Sci., 20, 289-328, 1992.

Baker, Daniel N., E.W. Hones, Jr., P.R. Higbie, R.D. Belian and P. Stauning
Global properties of the magnetosphere during a substorm growth phase: A case study, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 8941-8956, 1981.

Barbier, Daniel
L'activitŽ aurorale aux basses latitudes, Ann. Geophys., 14, 334-355, 1958.

Birkeland, Kristian
The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-3, A. Aschehoug, Christiania, Norway, 1908, 1913.

Bishop, Amasa S.
Project Sherwood--The US Program of Controlled Fusion, 216 pp., Addison-Wesley, 1958.

Blake, J. Bernard, W.A. Kolasinski, R.W. Fillius and E.G. Mullen
Injection of electrons and protons with energies of tens of MeV into L<3 on 24 March 1991, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 821-824, 1992.

Block, Lars P.
Potential double layers in the ionosphere, Cosm. Electrodyn., 3, 349-376, 1972.

Block, Lars P.
A double layer review, Astrophys. Space Sci., 55, 59-83, 1978.

Bostick, Winston H.
Experimental study of ionized matter projected across a magnetic field, Phys. Rev., 104, 292-299, 1956.

Bostick, Winston, H.
Experimental study of plasmoids, Phys. Rev., 106, 404-412, 1957.

Bostick, Winston H.
What laboratory-produced plasma structures can contribute to the understanding of cosmic structures both large and small, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., PS-14, 703-717, 1986.

Bostrom, Carl O. and George H. Ludwig
Instrumentation for Space Physics, Physics Today, 19, no.7, 43-56, July 1966.

Bostrom, Rolf, A model of the auroral electrojets, J. Geophys Res., 69, 4983-4999, 1964.

Bostrom, Rolf
Currents in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, p. 445-458 in The Birkeland Symposium on Aurora and Magnetic Storms, A. Egeland and J. Holtet, editors, Centre de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 1968.

Boyd, John S.
Rocket-borne measurements of auroral electrons, Rev. Geophys., 13, 735-740, 1975.

Brice, Neil M.
Bulk motion in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 5193-5211, 1967.

Brice, Neil M.
Differential Drift of Plasma Clouds in the Magnetosphere, unpublished manuscript, August 1973.

Brown, W.L., W.N. Hess and J.A. Van Allen
Introduction [to "Collected papers on the artificial radiation belt from the July 9, 1962, nuclear detonation], (c) J. Geophys Res., 68, 605-6, 1963.

Brush, Stephen G.
Prediction and theory evaluation: AlfvŽn on space plasma phenomena, Eos, 71, 19-33, January 9, 1990.

Burch, James L., S.A. Fields and R.A. Heelis
Polar cap electron acceleration regions, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 5863-5874, 1979.

Burke, William J. M.C. Kelley, R.C. Sagalyn, M. Smiddy and S.T. Lai
Polar cap electric field structure with northward interplanetary magnetic field, Geophys. Res. Let., 6, 21-24, 1979.

Burton, Rande K., R.L. McPherron and C.T. Russell
An empirical relationship between interplanetary conditions and Dst, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 4204-4214, 1975.

Bythrow, Peter F. , Thomas A. Potemra and Lawrence J. Zanetti
Variation of the auroral Birkeland current pattern associated with the north-south component of the IMF, p. 131-136 in Magnetospheric Currents, T.A. Potemra, ed., Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, DC 1984.

Caan, Michael N, Robert L. McPherron and Christopher T. Russell
Substorm and interplanetary magnetic field effects on the geomagnetic tail lobes, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 191-194, 1975.

Cahill, Lawrence J., Jr.
Early study of the boundary of the geomagnetic field, in Physics of the Magnetopause, B.U.O.Sonnerup and P. Song, editors, p. 9-16, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C. 1995.

Cahill, Lawrence J., Jr. and P.G. Amazeen
The boundary of the geomagnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 68, 1835-1843, 1963.

Carovillano, Robert L. and George L. Siscoe
Energy and momentum theorems in magnetospheric physics, Rev. Geophys., 11, 289-353, 1973.

Carpenter, Donald L.
Whistler evidence of a "knee" in the magnetospheric ionization density profile, J. Geophys. Res., 68, 1675-1682, 1963.

Carpenter, Donald L. and C.G. Park
What ionospheric workers should know about the plasmapause-plasmasphere, Rev. Geophys., 11, 133-154, 1973.

Carruthers, George R., T. Page and R.R. Meier
Apollo 16 Lyman-alpha imagery of the hydrogen corona, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 1664-1672, 1976.

Cauffman, David P. and Donald A. Gurnett
Double-probe measurement of convection electric fields with the Injun 5 satellite, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 6014-6027, 1971.

Cauffman, David P. and Donald A. Gurnett
Satellite measurements of high latitude convection electric fields, Space Sci. Rev., 13, 369-410, 1972.

Chapman, Sidney and Julian Bartels
Geomagnetism, (2 vol.) 1049 pp.,Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1940.

Chree, C.
Studies in Terrestrial Magnetism, 206 pp., McMillan & Co., London and New York, 1912 (also in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed. 1911, vol 17, pp. 353-385).

Chiu, Yam T. and M. Schulz
Self-consistent particle and parallel electrostatic field distributions in the magnetospheric-ionospheric auroral region, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 629-642, 1978.

Christofilos, Nicholas C. (c)
The Argus Experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 64, 869-876, 1959.

Clauer, C.Robert and Robert L. McPherron
Mapping the local time-universal time development of magnetospheric substorms using mid-latitude magnetic observations, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 2811-2820, 1974a.

Clauer, C.Robert and Robert L. McPherron
Variability of mid-latitude magnetic parameters used to characterize magnetospheric substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 2898-2900, 1974b.

Clauer, C. Robert, R.L. McPherron, C. Searls and M.G. Kivelson
Solar wind control of auroral zone geomagnetic activity, Geophys. Res. lett., 8, 915-918, 1981.

Cooper, John F. and J.A. Simpson
Sources of high-energy protons in Saturn's magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 5793-5802, 1980.

Corliss, William R.
Scientific Satellites, 822 pp., NASA publication SP-133, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1967.

Cowling, Thomas Gilbert
On AlfvŽn's theory of magnetic storms and of the aurora, Terrestr. Magnetism and Atmosph. Electricity, 47, 209-214, 1942.

Cowling, Thomas Gilbert
Conductivity of an ionised gas, with applications, Proc. Roy. Soc. A., 183, 453-479, 1945.

Coroniti, Frederick V. and Charles F. Kennel
Changes in magnetospheric configuration during substorm growth phase, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 3361- 3370, 1972.

Cummings, W.D. and A.J. Dessler
Field-aligned currents in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 1007-1013, 1967.

Dalgarno, Alexander, W.B. Hanson, N.W. Spencer and E.R. Schmerling (c)
The Atmosphere Explorer mission, Radio Science, 8, 263-266, 1973.

Dassoulas, John (c)
The Triad spacecraft, APL Technical Digest (Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Univ.), 12, 2-13, 1973.

Davis, Leo R. and J. M. Williamson
Low energy trapped protons, Space Research, 3, 365-375, North Holland Publ. Co., 1963.

Davis, Leo R. and J.M. Williamson
Outer zone protons, in Radiation Trapped in the Earth's Magnetic Field, Billy M. McCormac, editor, pp. 110-125, D. Reidel 1966.

Davis, T. Neil
The morphology of the auroral displays of 1957-1958, 2. Detail analyses of Alaska data and analyses of high-latitude data, J. Geophys. Res., 67, 75-110, 1962.

Davis, T. Neil
Magnetospheric convection pattern inferred from magnetic disturbance and auroral motion, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 5978-5984, 1971

DeForest, Sherman E. and Carl E. McIlwain
Plasma clouds in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 3587-3611, 1971.

Dessler, Alex J.
Discussion of paper by R.L. Arnoldy, R.A. Hoffman and J.R. Winckler, "Observation of the Van Allen radiation regions during August and September 1959," part 1, J. Geophys. Res., 65, 3487-3490, 1960.

Dessler, Alex J. (editor)
Physics of the Jovian Magnetosphere, xv + 544 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983.

Dessler, Alex J.
The Vernov radiation belt (almost), Science, 226, 915, 23 November 1984.

Dessler, Alex J. and Eugene N. Parker
Hydromagnetic theory of geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 64, 2239-2252, 1959.

Dessler, AlexJ. and Ernest H. Vestine
Maximum total energy of the Can Allen Radiation Belt, J. Geophys. Res., 65, 1069-71, 1960.

Dessler, Alex J. and Jules A.Fejer
Interpretation of Kp index and M-region geomagnetic storms, Planet. Space Sci., 11, 505-511, 1963.

Dessler, Alex J. and R.D. Juday
Configuration of auroral radiation in space, Planet. Space Sci., 13, 63-72, 1965.

DeVorkin, David H.
Science with a Vengeance, xxii+404 pp., Springer-Verlag, 1992.

Dobrowolny, M. and V. Formisano
The structure of the Earth's bow shock, Rivista del Nuovo Cimento, 3, 419-489, 1973.

Drake, Frank D.
Discovery of the Jupiter Radiation Belts, in Serendipitous Discoveries in Radio Astronomy, K. Kellermann and B. Sheets, editors, p. 258-265, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, 1985.

Dungey, J.W.
Conditions for the occurence of electrical discharges in astrophysical systems, Philos. Mag., 44, 725-738 1953.

Dungey, James W.
Cosmical Electrodynamics, 183 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, London 1958.

Dungey, James W.
Interplanetary magnetic field and the auroral zones, Phys. Rev. Letters, 6, 47-48, 1961.

Dungey, James W.
The structure of the exosphere, or, adventures in velocity in Geophysics, The Earth's Environment (Proceedings of the 1962 Les Houches Summer School), pp. 503-550, C. DeWitt, J. Hieblot and A. Lebeau, edditors, Gordon and Breach, NY 1963.

Dungey, James W.
The history of the magnetopause region, J.A.T.P., 40, 231-234, 1978.

Dungey, James W.
Memories, Maxims and Motives, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 19,189-197, 1994.

Dungey, James W.
Origins of the concept of reconnection and its application to the magnetopause: A historical view, in Physics of the Magnetopause, B.U.O.Sonnerup and P. Song, editors, p. 17-19, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C. 1995a.

Eather, Robert H.
Majestic Lights, 323 pp., Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, DC 1980.

Elphic, Richard C.
Fact, inference and speculation: what we know vs. what we believe about flux transfer events, in Physics of the Magnetopause, B.U.O.Sonnerup and P. Song, editors, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C. (in press, 1994).

Erickson, Gary M.
On the cause of X-line formation in the near-earth plasma sheet: Results of adiabatic convection of plasma sheet plasma, p. 296-302 in Magnetic Reconnection in Space and Laboratory Plasmas, E.W. Hones, Jr., editor, AGU, Washington, DC, 1984.

Erickson, Gary M.
A quasi-static magnetospheric convection model in two dimensions, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 6505-6522, 1992.

Erickson, Gary M. and Richard A. Wolf
Is steady convection possible in the Earth's magnetotail? Geophys. Res. Let., 7, 897-900, 1980.

Evans, David S.
Precipitating electron fluxes formed by a magnetic field aligned potential difference, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 2853-58, 1974.

Evans, David S.
Evidence for low-altitude acceleration of auroral particles, p. 319-340 in Physics of Hot Plasma in the Magnetosphere, B. Hultqvist and L. Stenflo, eds., Plenum, NY, 1976a.

Evans, David S.
The acceleration of charged particles at low altitudes, p. 730-739 in Physics of Solar Planetary Environments, D.J. Williams, ed., Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, DC 1976b.

Ezell, Linda Neuman
NASA Historical Data Book, Vol. II, Programs and Projects 1958-1968, 643 pp., NASA Publication SP-4012, 1988.

Fahleson, Ulf
Theory of electric field measurements conducted in the magnetosphere with electric probes, Space Sci. Rev., 7, 238-262, 1967.

Fairfield, Donald H. and Lawrence G. Cahill, Jr.
Transition region magnetic field and polar magnetic disturbances, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 155-169, 1966.

Fairfield, Donald H.
Polar magnetic disturbances and the interplanetary magnetic field, Space Research VIII, 107-119, 1967.

Fairfield, Donald H. and Norman F. Ness
Configuration of the geomagnetic tail during substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 7032-7047, 1970.

Farley, T.A.
The growth of our knowledge of the Earth's outer radiation belt, Rev. Geophys., 1. 3-34, 1963.

Feldshtein, Yakov I.
Some problems concerning the morphology of auroras and magnetic disturbances at high latitude, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, (English translation) 3, 183-192, 1963.

Felds(h)tein, Yakov I.
Polar auroras, polar substorms and their relationships with the dynamics of the magnetosphere, Rev. Geophys., 7, 179-218, 1969.

Ferraro, Vincent C.A.
Non-uniform rotation of the Sun and its magnetic field, Mon. Not. Roy.Astron.Soc., 97, 458-472, 1937.

Forbes, Terry G. and Eric R. Priest
A comparison of analytical and numerical models for steadily driven magnetic reconnection, Rev. Geophys., 25, 1583-1607, 1987.

Forbush, Scott E.
Three unusual cosmic-ray increases possibly due to charged particles from the sun, Phys. Rev., 70, 771-772, 1946.

Foster, John S, T. Kenneth Fowler and Frederick E. Mills
Nicholas C. Christofilos (obituary), Physics Today, 26, 109-115, January 1973.

Frank, Louis A.
Efficiency of a Geiger-Mueller tube for non-penetrating electrons, J. Franklin Inst., 273, 91-106, 1962.

Frank, Louis A.
On the extraterrestrial ring current during geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 3753-67, 1967 (ring current ions with OGO 3).

Frank, Louis A.
Relationship of the plasma sheet, ring current trapping boundary and plasmapause near the magnetic equator and local midnight, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 6971-6979, 1971.

Frank, Louis A., et al.
The theta aurora, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 3177-3224, 1986.

Frank, Louis A. and Kenneth L. Ackerson
Observations of charged particle precipitation into the auroral zone, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 3612-3643, 1971.

Frank, Louis A., K.L. Ackerson and R.P. Lepping
On hot tenuous plasmas, fireballs and boundary layers in the earth's magnetotail, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 5859-5881, 1976.

Frank, Louis A. and K.L. Ackerson
Reply, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 5641-5643, 1977.

Frank, Louis A., R.J. DeCoster and K.L. Ackerson
Reply, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 1187-1190, 1978a.

Frank, Louis A., R.J. DeCoster and K.L. Ackerson
Reply, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 3365-3366, 1978b.

Frank, Louis A. and Kenneth L. Ackerson
Several recent findings concerning the dynamics of the Earth's magnetotail, Space Science Reviews, 23, 375-392, 1979.

Frank, Louis A. and John D. Craven
Imaging results from Dynamics Explorer 1, Rev. Geophys., 26, 249-283, 1988.

Frank, Louis A. with Patrick Huyghe
The Big Splash, 255 pp., Birch Lane press, Carol Publ. Group, New York, 1990.

Franklin, Kenneth L.
An account of the discovery of Jupiter as a radio source, Astron J., 64, 37-39, 1959.

Franklin, Kenneth L.
The discovery of Jupiter Bursts, in Serendipitous Discoveries in Radio Astronomy, K. Kellermann and B. Sheets, editors, p. 252-257 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, 1985.

Freden, S.C. and R.S. White
Protons in the Earth's magnetic field, Phys. Rev. Letters, 3, 9-11, 1959.

Friedman, Herbert
From ionosonde to rocket sonde, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 19,143-153, 1994.

Friis-Christensen, Egil, K. Lassen, J.M. Wilcox, W. Gonzalez and D.S. Colburn
Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity from polar geomagnetic field observations, Nature (Physical Sciences), 233, PS48-PS50, 20 September 1971.

Fritz, Hermann
Das Polarlicht, Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1881.

Fujii, R., Takesi Iijima, Thomas A. Potemra and Masahisa Sugiura
Seasonal dependence of large-scale Birkeland currents, Geophys. Res. Lett., 8, 1103-1106, 1981.

Fukushima, Naoshi
Equivalence in ground geomagnetic effect of Chapman-Vestine's and Birkeland-Alfven's current systems for polar magnetic storms, Rep. Ionos.Space Res.Jap., 23, 219-227, 1969.

Fukushima, Naoshi
Generalized theorem for no ground magnetic effect of vertical currents connected with Pedersen currents in the uniform-conductivity ionosphere, Rep. Ionos.Space Res.Jap., 30, 35-40, 1976.

Fukushima, Naoshi
Some topics and historical episodes in geomagnetism and aeronomy, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 19,113-142, 1994.

Giovanelli, R.G.
Magnetic and electric phenomena in the sun's atmosphere associated with sunspots, Month. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 107, 338-355, 1947.

Goertz, Christoph K.
Double layers and electrostatic shocks in space, Rev. Geophys., 17, 418-426, 1979.

Goertz, Christoph K. and Robert A. Smith
The thermal catastrophe model of substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 6581-96, 1989.

Gold, Thomas
Motions in the magnetosphere of the Earth, J. Geophys. Res., 64, 1219-1224, 1959.

Gombosi, Tamas I., Bengt Hultqvist and Yohsuke Kamide, editors (c)
Pioneers of Space Physics, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 19,099-212, 1994.

Gosling, John T.
The solar flare myth, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 18,937-18,949, 1993.

Grad, Harold
Variational principle for a guiding center plasma, Phys. Fluids, 9, 225-251, 1966.

Greenstadt, Eugene W. and Robert W. Fredricks
Shock systems in collisionless space plasmas, p. 3-43 in vol 3 of Solar System Plasma Physics, C.F. Kennel, L.J. Lanzerotti and E.N. Parker, editors, North Holland 1979.

Gurnett, Donald A.
The earth as a radio source: terrestrial kilometric radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 4227-4238, 1974.

Gustafsson, Georg
On the orientation of auroral arcs, Planet. Space Sci., 15, 277-294, 1967.

Last updated 25 November 2001